Alfred Mosher Butts, an unemployed architect and resident of Poughkeepsie, New York, U.S.A., is credited with the creation of the word-game Scrabble. Butts was passionate about three types of games of chance that truly tested the mental strength and skills of the player. On analysing the games, he categorised them into games involving numbers (such as dice and bingo), games involving movement of pieces (such as chess and checkers) and games involving one's vocabulary (such as Scrabble and anagrams). Scrabble, which was invented by Butts in 1938, was originally called Lexiko, and later renamed as Criss-Cross Words. After facing some initial teething troubles, including the rejection of his idea by established board-game manufacturers, Butts grouped up with James Brunot and his wife, who expressed an interest in Butts' concept. They revised the rules and renamed the game as Scrabble. Scrabble was trademarked in the year 1948. It is today one of the world's favourite indoor pastimes and has attained the status of a cultural icon in modern American and world society.